8 Despite the establishment of a national teenage pregnancy

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However, none of these approaches directly tackles all the societal https://www.oakleyagent.com/, community, and family level factors that influence young people’s routes to early parenthood.Conclusions A small but reliable evidence base supports the effectiveness and appropriateness of early childhood interventions and youth development programmes for reducing unintended teenage pregnancy. Combining the findings from both controlled trials and qualitative studies provides a strong evidence base for informing effective public policy.IntroductionCountries such as the United Kingdom and the United States have high teenage pregnancy rates relative to other countries.1 2 3 Although teenage pregnancy can be a positive experience, particularly in the later teenage years,4 5 it is associated with a wide range of subsequent adverse health and social outcomes.6 7 These associations remain after adjusting for pre existing social, economic, and health problems.8 Despite the establishment of a national teenage pregnancy strategy in 1999,9 teenage birth rates in the UK are the highest in western Europe10 and conceptions among girls under 16 years of age in England and Wales have increased since 2006.11Recent research evidence shows that traditional approaches to reducing teenage pregnancy rates such as sex education and better sexual health services are not effective on their own.12 13 This evidence has generated increased interest in the effects of interventions that target the social disadvantage associated with early pregnancy and parenthood.14 15 16 17 18 19 Social disadvantage refers to a range of social and economic difficulties an individual can face such as unemployment, poverty, and discrimination and is distributed unequally on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics such as ethnicity, socioeconomic position, educational level, and place of residence.20 21The objectives of this study were to determine on the basis of evidence in qualitative and quantitative research the impact on teenage conceptions of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the UK.MethodsWe undertook a three part systematic review of the research evidence on social disadvantage and pregnancy in young people by using an innovative method we developed previously for integrating qualitative and quantitative research.22 23 The first part of the review focused on quantitative controlled trials and was designed to assess the impact on teenage conceptions of interventions that address the social determinants of teenage pregnancy. The second part focused on qualitative research and examined intervention need and appropriateness on the basis of the perspectives and experiences of young people.

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